如何避免PMO常见问题的出现

如何避免PMO常见问题的出现

网友转载 2014/7/6 22:54:16

随着项目管理知识体系90年代末被引进中国,20世纪初PMO开始逐步建立。由于PMO在国内发展时间较短, 除少数大型规范化管理IT企业PMO取得了一定的成绩外(如联想、神州数码等,已发展成控制型PMO或战略级PMO),大多数企业的PMO仍处于尴尬的境地。大部分处于初建或成熟度不高的摸索阶段,在PMO的运营与管理过程中,常常遭遇很多问题与困境。常见问题主要有以下六个方面:

(一)缺乏管理层强有力的支持

  通过调研可以了解到,这一点是目前许多PMO从业人员的普遍困惑,一方面在公司里他们常常感觉到公司领导重市场和研发,轻管理,把项目管理与行政管理、项目助理等同,没有真正体会到项目管理的价值,另一方面PMO的主任与其他职能部门经理处于同样级别与权限,无法跨部门进行资源协调和优先级排序。只有在PMO设置一个与组织中的其他高级管理人员处于同等地位的总监或副总裁的位置,才能掌管企业级别所有领域提供的项目,排定项目优先级、进行项目筛选、推动组织流程变革、跨越部门调配资源,这样项目管理办公室才能真正在企业中发挥其强有力的推动力。

(二)项目管理制度执行力较差

   在很多企业,虽然已建立了比较完善的项目管理体系、流程、模版,但是项目执行人员不按照相关的制度执行,仍然各自为政,流程体系被束之高阁。究其原因,一方面研发人员缺少对对流程、制度的了解和认知,同时项目管理部门没有在制定流程之初对研发人员及流程执行人员进行深入需求调研,并吸收相关部门人员参与评审与讨论,当流程发布后缺少对流程与制度的宣贯与培训。

(三)与其他部门职责有一定交叉或冲突  

  由于项目管理理念引进较晚,部分公司没有及时调整组织结构,原有的职能型组织结构、原有的职能部门存在强大的固有势力,职责没有理顺与和划分清楚,项目管理部、质量部、计划等部门常常就项目的监控与评审等环节常常发生职责与权限划分不明的情况,原有的职能型组织结构很难适应项目型快速组建团队,集成产品开发的要求。只有将PMO的职责与其他部门进行重新定义与划分,理顺与项目相关所有流程,合并相关环节或部门,才能使项目的控制与管理发挥合力。

(四)PMO人员技能欠缺

  在实际调研中可以发现,很多PMO人员是由项目助理或研发经理助理转化而来,或是刚毕业的大学生,一方面缺少丰富的项目经历的积累,同时缺少良好的项目管理知识体系与管理框架的培训,因此不能对项目管理体系进行有效的建立提供良好的解决方案,仍然从事项目助理或研发经理助理的行政性工作,很难对项目经理进行最佳实践的顾问式指导。

(五)缺少合理的项目评价与激励机制

部分公司组织结构属于职能型或弱矩阵型,资源线、项目线双重考核标准,没有建立良好的项目管理考核与激励体系。部门日常考核与项目考核完全脱节,使得项目团队成员没有较好的归属感与激励感。使得项目成员仍较大的依赖于资源部门,对项目组没有良好的激励机制和团队建设氛围。

(六)PMO人员工作缺少成就感

常常听到PMO人员抱怨工作没有成就感,只有苦劳没有功劳,究其原因目前很多企业已建立了技术和管理线的职业发展路径,但是对项目管理没有明确的职业发展路径,缺少相应的激励、绩效考核机制与晋升机制,使得很多从业人员或者对前途一片迷茫,或者在转换工作的时候发现其他很多企业并没有建立相应组织结构,职业发展道路狭窄,往往转行或从事其他工作


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